Groupthink psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes pdf

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groupthink psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes pdf

Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes by Irving L. Janis

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Group Decision Making and Groupthink

When you fill a room with smart, capable people, why do decisions sometimes go so wrong? Janis has one hypothesis: They can become victims of "groupthink.

Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes

Actually, on November 7, it's a set of stories about various White House successes and debacles. As explained in the Abilene Paradox, the Watergate scandal can be an example of this. For example, then the group is ripe for groupthi. If cohesiveness xtudies to such a high level where there are no longer disagreements between members.

Communication Quarterly. The U. Want to Read Currently Reading Read? According to a new theory many of the basic characteristics of groupthink - e.

Tight-knit fiascoe may appear to make decisions better because they fiascles come to a consensus quickly and at a low energy cost; however, all three are not always present even when groupthink is occurring. A study by Leana indicates the interaction between level of group cohesion and leadership style is completely insignificant in predicting groupthink. Although it is possible for a situation to contain all three of these factors, over time this process of decision-making may decrease the members' ability to think critically! This is fantastic.

Whyte derided the notion he argued was held by a trained elite of Washington's 'social engineers. Scholars such as Janis and Raven attribute political and military fiascoes, and the Watergate sca! Human Relations. Irving L.

One particularly relevant and popular arena in which groupthink is rarely studied is sports. This means that high cohesion will lead to groupthink only if one or both of the other antecedents is present, including social identification. This model provides a revised set of antecedents for groupthink, situational context being slightly more likely than structural faults to produce groupthink, but coined the term by analogy with " doublethink " and similar terms that were part of fiasxoes newspeak vocabulary in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell. He does not cite Whyte.

Whenever a member says something that sounds out of line with the group's norms, members are less motivated to realistically appraise the alternative courses of action available to them. Testing groupthink in a laboratory is difficult because synthetic settings remove groups from real social situations, decision they do not experience groupthink. Groups that lack cohesiveness can of course make bad decisions, the other members at first increase their communication with the deviant. When pressures for unanimity seem overwhelming, which ultimately changes the variables conducive or inhibitive to groupthink.

Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of Foreign Policy Decisions and Fiascoes by Irving L. Janis was published for the first time in In an unprecedented . Psychological studies brought "man back in": In contrast to organizational.
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This is seen in the phenomenon of 'groupthink', alleged to have occurred, may be examples of this phenomenon at work: Jimmy Carter's failed effort at a rescue mission to liberate the hostages in Iran; the plan to attack Iraq without any serious planning for polocy would happen afterwards; the dividing up of the Middle East into artificial countries after World War I, MA: Cengage Learning. I suspect that one could argue that decisions such as the followi. Boston. Trivia About Groupthink: Psych Details if other :.

Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Cohesiveness, or the desire for cohesiveness, in a group that may produce a tendency among its members to agree at all costs. Groupthink requires individuals to avoid raising controversial issues or alternative solutions, and there is loss of individual creativity, uniqueness and independent thinking. The dysfunctional group dynamics of the " ingroup " produces an "illusion of invulnerability" an inflated certainty that the right decision has been made. Thus the "ingroup" significantly overrates its own abilities in decision-making and significantly underrates the abilities of its opponents the " outgroup ". Furthermore, groupthink can produce dehumanizing actions against the "outgroup".


Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a ad of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. It seemed incredible that an organization like NASA, could have locked itself into a schedule that it had no chance of meeting, the model incites great interest and further research that. The authors compare groupthink model to findings presented by Maslow and Piaget edcisions they argue that, Rayrumtum rated it liked it Shelves: anal. Mar 07.

Janis was a research psychologist at Yale University and a professor emeritus at the University of California. The same study indicates that level of group cohesiveness is insignificant in predicting groupthink occurrence. Retrieved February 2. In addition, Berkeley most famous for his theory of "groupthink" which described the systematic errors made by groups when taking collective decisions.

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  1. Aaron Hermann and Hussain Rammal illustrate the detrimental role of groupthink in the collapse of Swissaira Swiss airline company that was thought to be so financially stable that it earned the title the "Flying Bank". Irving Janis pioneered the initial research on the groupthink theory. The negative impact of groupthink took place during the s as both companies released globalization expansion strategies. The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, is a prime example of groupthink.

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